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Title: Turquoise Mining in the Southwest

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

Turquoise mining among the Pueblos, Spanish, and Americans

Archaeologists have also found turquoise mines throughout Mesoamerica. One of the largest mines is in a mountain south of Santa Fe called Cuwimi Kai or Chalchihuitel—“a house inside which turquoise is found.” The Zuni often obtained...

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Title: Expedition into New Mexico Made by Antonio de Espejo 1582-1583 as Revealed in the Journal of Diego Pérez de Luxan, a Member of the Party

Author(s): Diego Pérez de Luxan (Author); George Hammond (Editor); Agapito Rey (Editor)

A merchant from New Spain journeys north as head of a relief party to find two Franciscan monks. Here he describes what his party found at Zuni.

We set out from this place on the fourteenth of the month and marched a league. We halted at the first pueblo of the province of Zuni which they called Malaque, in which we had a row of houses (for our use), and they gave us to eat of what they had u...

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Title: The Journey of Fray Marcos de Niza

Source(s): The Journey of Fray Marcos de Niza

Author(s): Fray Marcos de Niza (Author); Cleve Hallenbeck (Editor)

What happens when Fray Marcos de Niza sends Estevan the Spanish Moor as advance scout in search of the golden Cities of Cibola in 1539.

On another route I sent Estevan de Dorantes, the black, whom I instructed to follow to the north for fifty or sixty leagues, to see if by that route he would be able to learn of any great thing such as we sought; and I agreed with him that if he rece...

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Title: The Vengeance of Gouyen

Source(s): Indeh: An Apache Odyssey

Author(s): Eve Ball (Author); Nora Henn (Author); Lynda A. Sanchez

The widow Gouyen seeks revenge against a Comanche chief for killing her husband.

The Apache girl lay in the brush arbor of her mother-in-law waiting for the older woman to sleep. Her name is one the Apaches are forbidden to mention and she is known today only as Gouyen, Wise Woman, a term reserved only for the intelligent and cha...

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Title: Corn

Source(s): The Zuni Indians and Their Uses of Plants

Author(s): Matilda Coxe Stevenson (Author)

Anthropologist Matilda Stevenson describes the many ways in which Zuni people use corn.

Though not indigenous to the United States, corn was the staple food of the inhabitants of the Southwest long before the coming of the Spaniards in the middle of the sixteenth century, having been brought to this section either by peoples migrating f...

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Title: Alvarado’s Route

Source(s): Narratives of the Coronado Expedition 1540-1542

Author(s): Don Hernando Alvarado (Author); George P. Hammond (Editor); Agapito Rey (Editor)

An account of Don Hernando Alvarado’s travels among the Pueblos in 1540.

“We came to an old edifice resembling a fortress; a league farther on we found another one, and a little farther on still another. Beyond these we came to an ancient city, quite large but all in ruins, although a considerable portion of the wall, w...

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Title: Two Lives for Oñate

Author(s): Miguel Encinias (Author)

An excerpt from a novel about Juan de Oñate's campaign to conquer New Mexico in 1598-99.

On 12 January 1599, Zaldívar set out for Acoma with seventy soldiers and instructions to demand the delivery of those guilty for the attack on the Spaniards and, failing to achieve that, to wage relentless war and to take all of the inhabitants pris...

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Title: Carl Meets His Cousin-Brother

Source(s): Katzimo, Mysterious Mesa

Author(s): Bobette Bibo Gugliotta (Author)

The son of an Acoma mother and a German-Jewish father visits his mother's village for the first time and meets his cousin.

With a quick motion of his hand Horace indicated the path that the group was ascending. “Do you want to walk up the foot trail or do you want to climb the split trail?” He threw the choice at Carl like a challenge. Without hesitating Carl repl...

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Title: Uncle Tells a Story

Source(s): Writing the Southwest

Author(s): Simon Ortiz (Author); David King Dunaway (Editor); Sara L. Spurgeon (Editor)

Uncle Page talks about the last time he went hunting.

“Uncle, tell us a story,” people would say, “Tell us about the time you went to the mountains to hunt.” And the old man, Page, would say, “Well, I don’t really want to; I don’t have any stories.” “Please, Uncle,” they would ...

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Title: Going to Acoma

Source(s): Flaming Arrow’’s People by an Acoma Indian

Author(s): James Paytiamo (Author)

James Paytiamo describes the way from Albuquerque to Acoma.

If you go along the Santa Fe Trail about sixty-five miles west of Albuquerque, you will come to the ancient village of Laguna. These Laguna Indians used to belong to the tribe of Acoma Indians, but their ancestors quarreled in the olden days, and cam...

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