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Title: Zuni Encounters with Anthropologists

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

Frank Cushing at Zuni Pueblo

Zuni Pueblo has been a crossroads in the American Southwest for hundreds of years. The Zuni world included encounters with neighboring and more distant tribes. The Zuni world expanded with the Spanish entradas beginning in the 1500s. It expanded stil...

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Title: Hopi

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

An introduction to and overview of the Hopi material in Southwest Crossroads.

The villages of Hopi are the oldest continuously inhabited settlements in North America. Oraibi, the oldest village, dates back to about 1125 A.D. Present-day Hopis live in thirteen villages on and around three mesas in northern Arizona. For hundr...

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Title: Awat’ovi Kiva Murals

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

Discussion of the kiva murals found at Awat'ovi Pueblo.

The Hopis lived in the village of Awat’ovi on Antelope Mesa from about 1200 AD until its destruction in 1700. Between 1300 and 1600 AD Hopi artisans painted dozens of large murals in the village kiva, one on top of another. Between 1935 and 1939...

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Title: Zuni-Land in 1882

Source(s): Harper’s Magazine; WPA New Mexico Collections

Author(s): Sylvester Baxter (Author); B. W. Kenney (WPA Field Writer)

Traveler Sylvester Baxter describes the pueblo of Zuni as it appeared in 1882.

We finally reached Zuni at noon. The pueblo lies at the foot of the majestic Thunder Mountain. Close by flows the Zuni River. It is but a trickling stream in the dry season, but becomes a torrent in the rainy seasons. Because of flooding, the pueblo ...

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Title: Acoma

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

An introduction to the history and culture of the people of Acoma.

Tribal elders say that Acoma (sometimes spelled Akome, Acuo, Acuco, Ako and A’ku-me) means “a place that always was.” Archaeologists have found artifacts at digs on Acoma Mesa that speak of prehistoric times. Like its near neighbors Hopi and Zu...

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Title: The Origins of Pottery

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

When people started to make pottery and how it changed their societies.

Small bands of indigenous peoples roamed the American Southwest between 10,000 BCE and 1000 CE. They moved around following game and gathering whatever plants were in season. They may have carried their belongings and foodstuffs in baskets. Peopl...

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Title: Traditional Apache Life

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

An overview of some important events and themes in the lives of Apaches.

The Athapaskan peoples migrated south from Alaska and Canada and eventually split into seven distinct groups. By 1500, they occupied a vast expanse of territory in the American Southwest. The extreme environments they inhabited—mountains, deserts, ...

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Title: Oraibi Before the Split

Source(s): Hopi Voices: Recollections, Traditions, and Narratives of the Hopi Indians

Author(s): Homer Cooyama, Kikeuchmovi, July 1970 (Author); Harold Courlander (Editor)

A Hopi elder tells how the conflict between the Hostiles and the Friendlies within Oraibi society destroyed their ancient religion.

Before the split, Old Oraibi was a very complicated society. We were involved with different organizations, with fraternities, with groups (comparable to) the Masons, many things we don’t know too much about today. There were fourteen kivas in Old ...

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Title: The Split at Oraibi: An Oraibi Account

Source(s): Hopi Voices: Recollections, Traditions, and Narratives of the Hopi Indians

Author(s): Chuka (Don C. Talayesva), Oraibi, July 1970 (Author); Harold Courlander (Editor)

A Hopi elder talks about how factions developed between the Hostiles and the Friendlies at Oraibi in 1906.

I can tell you exactly how it happened because I was involved in that business. I was about sixteen years old then. There was this group in Oraibi that was hostile to the whites. That was the problem. We all used to live peaceably together when I was...

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Title: Hopi Religion and the Missionaries

Source(s): Hopi Voices: Recollections, Traditions, and Narratives of the Hopi Indians

Author(s): Nuvayoiyava (Albert Yava), Tewa Village (Author); Harold Courlander (Editor)

We old-timers can see that there has been a steady drift away from our traditional attitude toward nature and the universe. What I’m talking about is not the dancing and the kiva paraphernalia, all those visible things. They are only a means of exp...

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