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Title: Early Accounts of Turquoise Use by Native Americans

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

Spanish explorers on the use of turquoise among the Pueblos

“In this pueblo they were all bedecked with turquoises, which hung from their noses and ears and which they call cacona.…The three days being over, many people gathered to go with me. I selected thirty prominent men, all very well dressed, wearin...

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Title: Expedition into New Mexico Made by Antonio de Espejo 1582-1583 as Revealed in the Journal of Diego Pérez de Luxan, a Member of the Party

Author(s): Diego Pérez de Luxan (Author); George Hammond (Editor); Agapito Rey (Editor)

A merchant from New Spain journeys north as head of a relief party to find two Franciscan monks. Here he describes what his party found at Zuni.

We set out from this place on the fourteenth of the month and marched a league. We halted at the first pueblo of the province of Zuni which they called Malaque, in which we had a row of houses (for our use), and they gave us to eat of what they had u...

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Title: The Journey of Fray Marcos de Niza

Source(s): The Journey of Fray Marcos de Niza

Author(s): Fray Marcos de Niza (Author); Cleve Hallenbeck (Editor)

What happens when Fray Marcos de Niza sends Estevan the Spanish Moor as advance scout in search of the golden Cities of Cibola in 1539.

On another route I sent Estevan de Dorantes, the black, whom I instructed to follow to the north for fifty or sixty leagues, to see if by that route he would be able to learn of any great thing such as we sought; and I agreed with him that if he rece...

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Title: Castañeda's History of the Expedition

Source(s): The Journey of Francisco Vasquez de Coronado 1540-1542; Coronado Cuarto Centennial Publications, 1540-1940

Author(s): Pedro de Castañeda (Author); George P. Hammond (Editor); Agapito Rey (Editor)

How the Zunis kill the negro Esteban at Cibola, and how Fray Marcos flees in flight.

CHAPTER III — How they killed the negro Esteban at Cíbola, and how Fray Marcos returned in flight. When Esteban got away from the said friars, he craved to gain honor and fame in everything and to be credited with the boldness and daring of dis...

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Title: As for the Natives

Author(s): Diego de Vargas (Author)

Diego de Vargas’ comment on the people of Acoma when he returned to New Mexico in 1692.

“...As for the natives of the rock of Acoma, since they are a distance of twenty-four leagues from Isleta, and also those of the province of Zuni, they may be left as they are.”

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Title: Fray Juan Ramírez Comes to Acoma

Source(s): K’atsina: A Novel of Rebellion

Author(s): Lana M. Harrigan (Author)

A novelist's depiction of the arrival of Fray Juan Ramírez in Acoma Pueblo in 1629.

That night Juan Ramírez wrapped himself in a coarse woolen blanket and lay down on the hard ground where he would build his house of worship. He was glad the governor and his entourage had departed. The Acoma had taken down baskets of corn, a few...

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Title: How Don Pedro de Tovar Discovered Tusayan

Source(s): The Journey of Coronado 1540-1542; (Chapter XI)

Author(s): George Parker Winship (Editor)

How Don Pedro de Tovar discovered Tusayan or Tutahaco and Don García López de Cárdenas saw the Firebrand River and the other things that happened. While the things already described were taking place, Cíbola being at peace, the General Francis...

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Title: A Voice

Source(s): My Own True Name: New and Selected Poems for Young Adults

Author(s): Pat Mora (Author)

A poem describing the narrator’s mother’s struggle to learn English.

Even the lights on the stage unrelenting as the desert sun couldn’t hide the other students, their eyes also unrelenting, students who spoke English every night as they ate their meat, potatoes, gravy. Not you. In your house that smelled lik...

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Title: Trading in the Americas

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

A brief overview of trading in the Americas.

For hundreds of years, indigenous people of the American Southwest, whether on the move or in permanent settlements, traded among themselves. Archeologists have found shells from the Pacific Ocean, parrot feathers from Mexico, and turquoise from dist...

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Results Found: 9