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Title: Father Greyrobe: Was He or Wasn’t He?

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

Account of a Spanish priest who may have survived the Pueblo Revolt.

Catholicism was the religion of Spanish conquest. By the late 1600s, it had dominated Pueblo life for well over a century. In the wake of the Pueblo Revolt of 1680, few signs of it remained. The leaders killed the mission priests and burned the churc...

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Title: Hopi

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

An introduction to and overview of the Hopi material in Southwest Crossroads.

The villages of Hopi are the oldest continuously inhabited settlements in North America. Oraibi, the oldest village, dates back to about 1125 A.D. Present-day Hopis live in thirteen villages on and around three mesas in northern Arizona. For hundr...

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Title: Katsinam

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

The meaning and origin of katsina rituals.

Katsinam are Hopi spirit messengers who send prayers for rain, bountiful harvests, and a prosperous, healthy life for humankind. They are our friends and visitors who bring gifts and food, as well as messages to teach appropriate behavior and the con...

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Title: Acoma

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

An introduction to the history and culture of the people of Acoma.

Tribal elders say that Acoma (sometimes spelled Akome, Acuo, Acuco, Ako and A’ku-me) means “a place that always was.” Archaeologists have found artifacts at digs on Acoma Mesa that speak of prehistoric times. Like its near neighbors Hopi and Zu...

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Title: Two Lives for Oñate

Author(s): Miguel Encinias (Author)

An excerpt from a novel about Juan de Oñate's campaign to conquer New Mexico in 1598-99.

On 12 January 1599, Zaldívar set out for Acoma with seventy soldiers and instructions to demand the delivery of those guilty for the attack on the Spaniards and, failing to achieve that, to wage relentless war and to take all of the inhabitants pris...

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Title: Who Were the Lipan and the Kiowa-Apaches?

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

An introduction to the Lipan and Kiowa-Apache peoples.

Two small Apache tribes, the Lipan and the Kiowa-Apache, lived on the western Great Plains during the early 1600s. Today they have become part of the other Apache tribes. Very few of those living today remember the Lipan and the Kiowa-Apache tribal ...

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Title: How the Spaniards Came to Shung-opovi, How They Built a Mission, and How the Hopi Destroyed the Mission

Source(s): Truth of a Hopi

Author(s): Edmund Nequatewa (Author)

It may have taken quite a long time for these villages to be established. Anyway, every place was pretty well settled down when the Spanish came. The Spanish were first heard of at Zuni and then at Awatovi. They came on to Shung-opovi, passing Walpi....

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Title: The Moqui Nation

Source(s): Fray Alonso de Benavides’ Revised Memorial of 1634

Author(s): Fray Alonso de Benavides (Author); George P. Hammond (Editor); Agapito Rey (Editor)

An account of how Fray Francisco de Porras arrived at Hopi and established the mission of San Bernardo.

Traveling another thirty leagues in the same westward direction, one reaches the province and nation of Moqui [Hopi], which is of the same character as the above- mentioned Zuni, both in products and climate; it has also ten thousand souls. They diff...

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Title: Oraibi Before the Split

Source(s): Hopi Voices: Recollections, Traditions, and Narratives of the Hopi Indians

Author(s): Homer Cooyama, Kikeuchmovi, July 1970 (Author); Harold Courlander (Editor)

A Hopi elder tells how the conflict between the Hostiles and the Friendlies within Oraibi society destroyed their ancient religion.

Before the split, Old Oraibi was a very complicated society. We were involved with different organizations, with fraternities, with groups (comparable to) the Masons, many things we don’t know too much about today. There were fourteen kivas in Old ...

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Title: Last of the Lipans

Source(s): Indeh: An Apache Odyssey

Author(s): Philemon Venego (Author); Eve Ball (Author)

Philemon Venego describes the arrival of the Lipán Apaches at the Mesacalero reservation.

I remember the trip well. I was about nine or ten years old, I think, and understood that we were to see our relatives and friends and have a home on the reservation. When we got off the train, there were Apaches with wagons at the station to meet us...

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