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Title: Who Is Chakwaina?

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

Origins of the Chakwaina katsina.

In 1529, Spanish explorer Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Baca and three companions survived a shipwreck at the mouth of what is now known as the Mississippi River. Esteban, a black Moorish slave, was among the survivors. For seven years, the four Spaniards w...

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Title: Father Greyrobe: Was He or Wasn’t He?

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

Account of a Spanish priest who may have survived the Pueblo Revolt.

Catholicism was the religion of Spanish conquest. By the late 1600s, it had dominated Pueblo life for well over a century. In the wake of the Pueblo Revolt of 1680, few signs of it remained. The leaders killed the mission priests and burned the churc...

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Title: Muster Roll

Source(s): Majestic Journey: Coronado’s Inland Empire

Author(s): Stewart L. Udall (Author)

Before Coronado’s expedition into New Mexico, a muster roll was taken describing each traveler in detail.

We know a lot about events that day at Compostela— exactly 192 years before George Washington was born in 1732—because Don Antonio had issued an order that each soldier would pass before an inspector and declare his possessions. Thus, diligent sc...

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Title: Expedition into New Mexico Made by Antonio de Espejo 1582-1583 as Revealed in the Journal of Diego Pérez de Luxan, a Member of the Party

Author(s): Diego Pérez de Luxan (Author); George Hammond (Editor); Agapito Rey (Editor)

A merchant from New Spain journeys north as head of a relief party to find two Franciscan monks. Here he describes what his party found at Zuni.

We set out from this place on the fourteenth of the month and marched a league. We halted at the first pueblo of the province of Zuni which they called Malaque, in which we had a row of houses (for our use), and they gave us to eat of what they had u...

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Title: The Journey of Fray Marcos de Niza

Source(s): The Journey of Fray Marcos de Niza

Author(s): Fray Marcos de Niza (Author); Cleve Hallenbeck (Editor)

What happens when Fray Marcos de Niza sends Estevan the Spanish Moor as advance scout in search of the golden Cities of Cibola in 1539.

On another route I sent Estevan de Dorantes, the black, whom I instructed to follow to the north for fifty or sixty leagues, to see if by that route he would be able to learn of any great thing such as we sought; and I agreed with him that if he rece...

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Title: Castañeda's History of the Expedition

Source(s): The Journey of Francisco Vasquez de Coronado 1540-1542; Coronado Cuarto Centennial Publications, 1540-1940

Author(s): Pedro de Castañeda (Author); George P. Hammond (Editor); Agapito Rey (Editor)

How the Zunis kill the negro Esteban at Cibola, and how Fray Marcos flees in flight.

CHAPTER III — How they killed the negro Esteban at Cíbola, and how Fray Marcos returned in flight. When Esteban got away from the said friars, he craved to gain honor and fame in everything and to be credited with the boldness and daring of dis...

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Title: Pérez de Villagrá’s Cantos

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

An introduction to Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá's poetic history of Spanish battles with Pueblo people in New Mexico in the 1590s.

Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá accompanied Juan de Oñate on the Spanish expedition into Nuevo Mexico in 1598. Luckily for history, Villagrá was a poet who recorded the details of the adventures in the rhyming verse of his day. Villagrá modeled his His...

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Title: Fray Juan Ramírez Comes to Acoma

Source(s): K’atsina: A Novel of Rebellion

Author(s): Lana M. Harrigan (Author)

A novelist's depiction of the arrival of Fray Juan Ramírez in Acoma Pueblo in 1629.

That night Juan Ramírez wrapped himself in a coarse woolen blanket and lay down on the hard ground where he would build his house of worship. He was glad the governor and his entourage had departed. The Acoma had taken down baskets of corn, a few...

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Title: The Lost White Brother

Source(s): Pumpkin Seed Point: Being Within the Hopi

Author(s): Frank Waters (Author)

The prophesied return of Quetzalcoatl, the white and bearded redeemer of the Toltecs and Aztecs, he who was known to the Mayas as Kukulcan, and to the Hopis as Pahana, was a myth of profound significance common to all Mesoamerica. According to the...

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Title: Martyrdom of the Blessed Father

Source(s): Fray Alonso de Benavides' Revised Memorial of 1634

Author(s): Fray Francisco de Porras, at Moqui (Author); George P. Hammond (Editor); Agapito Rey (Editor)

How Fray Francisco de Porras cured a blind boy through prayer, and converted many of the Moqui Indians.

From the time this blessed father [Fray Francisco de Porras] took holy orders in San Francisco de México, he had been a religious of exemplary life. For this reason, the order retained him as master of novices for so many years that they considered ...

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