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Title: Zuni

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

Introduction to Zuni

The Zuni, who call themselves A'shiwi, tell the story that long ago their gods cut off the peoples' tails, split the webs between their toes with stone knives, and led them from the underworld to seek their home in the center of the universe. When at...

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Title: Zuni Encounters with Anthropologists

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

Frank Cushing at Zuni Pueblo

Zuni Pueblo has been a crossroads in the American Southwest for hundreds of years. The Zuni world included encounters with neighboring and more distant tribes. The Zuni world expanded with the Spanish entradas beginning in the 1500s. It expanded stil...

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Title: Zuni Salt Lake through the Lens of Time

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

Introduction to Salt Lake and its meanings.

In 1598, when Juan de Oñate colonized New Mexico, he sent Marcos Farfán to explore Zuni Salt Lake. Farfán reported that the lake was a marvelous thing; the entire surface was encrusted with salt, except for a place in the center where water bubble...

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Title: Turquoise Mining in the Southwest

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

Turquoise mining among the Pueblos, Spanish, and Americans

Archaeologists have also found turquoise mines throughout Mesoamerica. One of the largest mines is in a mountain south of Santa Fe called Cuwimi Kai or Chalchihuitel—“a house inside which turquoise is found.” The Zuni often obtained...

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Title: Father Greyrobe: Was He or Wasn’t He?

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

Account of a Spanish priest who may have survived the Pueblo Revolt.

Catholicism was the religion of Spanish conquest. By the late 1600s, it had dominated Pueblo life for well over a century. In the wake of the Pueblo Revolt of 1680, few signs of it remained. The leaders killed the mission priests and burned the churc...

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Title: Muster Roll

Source(s): Majestic Journey: Coronado’s Inland Empire

Author(s): Stewart L. Udall (Author)

Before Coronado’s expedition into New Mexico, a muster roll was taken describing each traveler in detail.

We know a lot about events that day at Compostela— exactly 192 years before George Washington was born in 1732—because Don Antonio had issued an order that each soldier would pass before an inspector and declare his possessions. Thus, diligent sc...

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Title: The Wedding of the Louse and the Nit

Source(s): La Musica de los Viejitos: Hispano Folk Music of the Rio Grande del Norte

Author(s): Abade Martinez, arranger (Musician); Jack Loeffler (Editor)

A song the conquistadores may have sung as they marched to New Mexico.

The louse and the nit were going to be wed, but marry they couldn't, because there was no bread. chorus: Dee-da-la, dee-da-la, dee-da la dee-da-la, dee-da-la,dee-da-dam A cow calls out, from her corral “Carry on with the wedding, sinc...

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Title: Letter from Coronado to Mendoza

Source(s): The Journey of Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, 1540-1542

Author(s): Francisco Vásquez de Coronado (Author); George Hammond (Editor); Agapito Rey (Editor)

Francisco Vásquez de Coronado wrote this report to Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza describing his expedition into New Mexico in 1540.

Ferrando Alvarado came back to tell me that some Indians had met him peaceably, & that two of them were with the army-master waiting for me. I went to them forthwith and gave them some paternosters and some little cloaks, telling them to return to th...

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Title: Hopi

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

An introduction to and overview of the Hopi material in Southwest Crossroads.

The villages of Hopi are the oldest continuously inhabited settlements in North America. Oraibi, the oldest village, dates back to about 1125 A.D. Present-day Hopis live in thirteen villages on and around three mesas in northern Arizona. For hundr...

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Title: Castañeda's History of the Expedition

Source(s): The Journey of Francisco Vasquez de Coronado 1540-1542; Coronado Cuarto Centennial Publications, 1540-1940

Author(s): Pedro de Castañeda (Author); George P. Hammond (Editor); Agapito Rey (Editor)

How the Zunis kill the negro Esteban at Cibola, and how Fray Marcos flees in flight.

CHAPTER III — How they killed the negro Esteban at Cíbola, and how Fray Marcos returned in flight. When Esteban got away from the said friars, he craved to gain honor and fame in everything and to be credited with the boldness and daring of dis...

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