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Title: Zuni Origins and Migrations

Source(s): A Zuni Atlas

Author(s): T.J. Ferguson (Author); E. Richard Hart (Author)

These are some of the stories Zunis tell about the orgin of their people and their migration to the Middle Place.

The Zunis were created in the fourth world. Their immortal gods led them up through the third, second, and first worlds into the light of day. They emerged deep inside a canyon somewhere along the Colorado River. After the people had washed the slime...

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Title: The Wedding of the Louse and the Nit

Source(s): La Musica de los Viejitos: Hispano Folk Music of the Rio Grande del Norte

Author(s): Abade Martinez, arranger (Musician); Jack Loeffler (Editor)

A song the conquistadores may have sung as they marched to New Mexico.

The louse and the nit were going to be wed, but marry they couldn't, because there was no bread. chorus: Dee-da-la, dee-da-la, dee-da la dee-da-la, dee-da-la,dee-da-dam A cow calls out, from her corral “Carry on with the wedding, sinc...

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Title: Letter from Coronado to Mendoza

Source(s): The Journey of Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, 1540-1542

Author(s): Francisco Vásquez de Coronado (Author); George Hammond (Editor); Agapito Rey (Editor)

Francisco Vásquez de Coronado wrote this report to Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza describing his expedition into New Mexico in 1540.

Ferrando Alvarado came back to tell me that some Indians had met him peaceably, & that two of them were with the army-master waiting for me. I went to them forthwith and gave them some paternosters and some little cloaks, telling them to return to th...

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Title: Early Life

Source(s): Geronimo: His Own Story

Author(s): Geronimo (Author); S. M. Barrett (Oral Historian)

Famed Chiricahua Apache war chief Geronimo speaks of his childhood and how a boy becomes a warrior. As Told to S. M. Barrett.

I was born in No-doyohn Cañon, Arizona, June, 1829. In that country which lies around the headwaters of the Gila River I was reared. This range was our fatherland; among these mountains our wigwams were hidden; the scattered valleys contained our fi...

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Title: Warriors: Navajo Code Talkers

Author(s): Kenji Kawano (Author); Thomas H. Begay (Author); Samuel Tom Holiday (Author)

A Navajo Code Talker remembers fighting with the Marines in the South Pacific during World War II.

Thomas H. Begay, Tsi’ najinii and Ashiihi Clans, was a member of the 5th Marine Division and saw combat on Hawai`i, Enewetak Atoll, Guam, Tinian, Saipan, and Iwo Jima. We were disciplined....I learned to survive combat. The first hour, I was wit...

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Title: Acoma

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

An introduction to the history and culture of the people of Acoma.

Tribal elders say that Acoma (sometimes spelled Akome, Acuo, Acuco, Ako and A’ku-me) means “a place that always was.” Archaeologists have found artifacts at digs on Acoma Mesa that speak of prehistoric times. Like its near neighbors Hopi and Zu...

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Title: Villagrá’s Cantos

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

A brief introduction to Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá’s cantos describing the battle between the people of Acoma and the Spanish in 1598.

Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá accompanied Juan de Oñate on the Spanish expedition into Nuevo Mexico in 1598. Luckily for history, Villagrá was a poet who recorded the details of the adventures in the rhyming verse of his day. Villagrá modeled his His...

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Title: Pérez de Villagrá’s Cantos

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

An introduction to Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá's poetic history of Spanish battles with Pueblo people in New Mexico in the 1590s.

Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá accompanied Juan de Oñate on the Spanish expedition into Nuevo Mexico in 1598. Luckily for history, Villagrá was a poet who recorded the details of the adventures in the rhyming verse of his day. Villagrá modeled his His...

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Title: Two Lives for Oñate

Author(s): Miguel Encinias (Author)

An excerpt from a novel about Juan de Oñate's campaign to conquer New Mexico in 1598-99.

On 12 January 1599, Zaldívar set out for Acoma with seventy soldiers and instructions to demand the delivery of those guilty for the attack on the Spaniards and, failing to achieve that, to wage relentless war and to take all of the inhabitants pris...

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Title: Gaspar Villagrá and the Story of His Epic Adventure in the Upper Rio Grande

Source(s): Trail Dust

Author(s): Marc Simmons (Author); Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá (Author)

Historian Marc Simmons sketches the life of Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá, poet-historian of the Spanish conquest.

Captain Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá published an epic poem in 1610. Written in classical style, it was fashioned in imitation of the Aeneid by the Roman poet Virgil. The poem bore the rather colorless name, Historia de la Nueva Mexico. Villagrá is...

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