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Title: Castañeda's History of the Expedition

Source(s): The Journey of Francisco Vasquez de Coronado 1540-1542; Coronado Cuarto Centennial Publications, 1540-1940

Author(s): Pedro de Castañeda (Author); George P. Hammond (Editor); Agapito Rey (Editor)

How the Zunis kill the negro Esteban at Cibola, and how Fray Marcos flees in flight.

CHAPTER III — How they killed the negro Esteban at Cíbola, and how Fray Marcos returned in flight. When Esteban got away from the said friars, he craved to gain honor and fame in everything and to be credited with the boldness and daring of dis...

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Title: Declaration of Status

Source(s): Don Juan de Oñate, Colonizer of New Mexico, 1595-1628

Author(s): Isabel la mulata (Author); George Hammond (Editor); Agapito Rey (Editor)

Isabel, a woman of Indian and African descent, obtains proof of her freedom before traveling to New Mexico in 1600.

In the town of Querétaro in New Spain, January 8, 1600, there appeared before Don Pedro Lorenzo de Castilla, his majesty's alcalde mayor in this town, a mulatto woman named Isabel, who presented herself before his grace in the appropriate legal mann...

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Title: Traditional Apache Life

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

An overview of some important events and themes in the lives of Apaches.

The Athapaskan peoples migrated south from Alaska and Canada and eventually split into seven distinct groups. By 1500, they occupied a vast expanse of territory in the American Southwest. The extreme environments they inhabited—mountains, deserts, ...

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Title: How the Spaniards Came to Shung-opovi, How They Built a Mission, and How the Hopi Destroyed the Mission

Source(s): Truth of a Hopi

Author(s): Edmund Nequatewa (Author)

It may have taken quite a long time for these villages to be established. Anyway, every place was pretty well settled down when the Spanish came. The Spanish were first heard of at Zuni and then at Awatovi. They came on to Shung-opovi, passing Walpi....

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Title: Bishop Lamy’s Five Rules for the Brotherhood of Penance, October 27, 1856

Source(s): The Santa Fe New Mexico Sentinel (January 26, 1938, p. 2); Brothers of Light, Brothers of Blood: The Penitentes of the Southwest

Author(s): Bishop Lamy (Author); Monsignor Philip F. Mahoney (Translator); Marta Weigle (Author)

Bishop Lamy’s Five Rules for the Brotherhood of Penance.

In this the year 1857, there have been granted by His Grace Don Juan Lamy, the permission to continue the devotion of the Passion and Death of Our Lord, Jesus Christ, as a penance, by all its devotees. The rules, granted on petition of the President ...

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Title: Abiquiu

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

A short history of Abiquiu and its peoples, including genizaros in the 1700s.

The village of Abiquiu lies in the Chama River Valley on high ground above the Chama River. People made their homes in the Chama River Valley for at least 5,000 years before the establishment of this village in the 1700s. We know this because we find...

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Title: Penitentes

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

A brief description of the Penitente Brotherhood and the Hispano communities it served.

During the 1600s and 1700s, Hispano settlers in present-day New Mexico lived in small isolated poblaciones, or communities. They built adobe houses, dug acequias (irrigation ditches), and planted their crops along these ditches. The settlers lived in...

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Title: Reies López Tijerina and the Tierra Amarilla Courthouse Raid

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

A description of conflicts over land ownership in northern New Mexico. In the 1960s, Reies Lopez Tijerina organized the descendants of the original land grantees in a series of protests and demonstrations to recover their lands.

When the Spaniards claimed northern New Mexico as Spanish land in the 1600s, settlers from Spain and present-day Mexico formed ranching and farming communities on land long occupied by Native Americans. The Spanish authorities awarded land grants to ...

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Title: Trading in the Americas

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

A brief overview of trading in the Americas.

For hundreds of years, indigenous people of the American Southwest, whether on the move or in permanent settlements, traded among themselves. Archeologists have found shells from the Pacific Ocean, parrot feathers from Mexico, and turquoise from dist...

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Title: A Mexican War

Author(s): Captain William French (Author); Recollections of a Western Ranchman

Recollections of ranching in southwestern New Mexico, near the town of Alma, 1883-1899.

After Thanksgiving we settled down to our usual routine. Things were going along smoothly when one afternoon we were startled by a messenger from our friends at the SU (ranch). This man brought word that there was trouble between the Mexicans and the...

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