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Title: Zuni Salt Lake through the Lens of Time

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

Introduction to Salt Lake and its meanings.

In 1598, when Juan de Oñate colonized New Mexico, he sent Marcos Farfán to explore Zuni Salt Lake. Farfán reported that the lake was a marvelous thing; the entire surface was encrusted with salt, except for a place in the center where water bubble...

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Title: Muster Roll

Source(s): Majestic Journey: Coronado’s Inland Empire

Author(s): Stewart L. Udall (Author)

Before Coronado’s expedition into New Mexico, a muster roll was taken describing each traveler in detail.

We know a lot about events that day at Compostela— exactly 192 years before George Washington was born in 1732—because Don Antonio had issued an order that each soldier would pass before an inspector and declare his possessions. Thus, diligent sc...

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Title: Acoma

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

An introduction to the history and culture of the people of Acoma.

Tribal elders say that Acoma (sometimes spelled Akome, Acuo, Acuco, Ako and A’ku-me) means “a place that always was.” Archaeologists have found artifacts at digs on Acoma Mesa that speak of prehistoric times. Like its near neighbors Hopi and Zu...

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Title: Villagrá’s Cantos

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

A brief introduction to Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá’s cantos describing the battle between the people of Acoma and the Spanish in 1598.

Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá accompanied Juan de Oñate on the Spanish expedition into Nuevo Mexico in 1598. Luckily for history, Villagrá was a poet who recorded the details of the adventures in the rhyming verse of his day. Villagrá modeled his His...

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Title: The Bird Man

Source(s): Two Guadalupes: Hispanic Legends and Magic Tales from Northern New Mexico

Author(s): Traditional; Marta Weigle (Editor)

A traditional Spanish tale about a prince who became a bird and then a king.

Once upon a time there lived a king who had three sons. Now the first wife of the king had died and the king had married again. The stepmother of the three boys was very mean. She treated her stepsons very badly. One day she stood in the door of t...

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Title: Pérez de Villagrá’s Cantos

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

An introduction to Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá's poetic history of Spanish battles with Pueblo people in New Mexico in the 1590s.

Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá accompanied Juan de Oñate on the Spanish expedition into Nuevo Mexico in 1598. Luckily for history, Villagrá was a poet who recorded the details of the adventures in the rhyming verse of his day. Villagrá modeled his His...

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Title: Two Lives for Oñate

Author(s): Miguel Encinias (Author)

An excerpt from a novel about Juan de Oñate's campaign to conquer New Mexico in 1598-99.

On 12 January 1599, Zaldívar set out for Acoma with seventy soldiers and instructions to demand the delivery of those guilty for the attack on the Spaniards and, failing to achieve that, to wage relentless war and to take all of the inhabitants pris...

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Title: Declaration of Status

Source(s): Don Juan de Oñate, Colonizer of New Mexico, 1595-1628

Author(s): Isabel la mulata (Author); George Hammond (Editor); Agapito Rey (Editor)

Isabel, a woman of Indian and African descent, obtains proof of her freedom before traveling to New Mexico in 1600.

In the town of Querétaro in New Spain, January 8, 1600, there appeared before Don Pedro Lorenzo de Castilla, his majesty's alcalde mayor in this town, a mulatto woman named Isabel, who presented herself before his grace in the appropriate legal mann...

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Title: Gaspar Villagrá and the Story of His Epic Adventure in the Upper Rio Grande

Source(s): Trail Dust

Author(s): Marc Simmons (Author); Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá (Author)

Historian Marc Simmons sketches the life of Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá, poet-historian of the Spanish conquest.

Captain Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá published an epic poem in 1610. Written in classical style, it was fashioned in imitation of the Aeneid by the Roman poet Virgil. The poem bore the rather colorless name, Historia de la Nueva Mexico. Villagrá is...

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Title: Antonio Espejo and His Expedition of 1582-1583

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

A brief description of the Antonio de Espejo Expedition of 1582-1583.

Antonio de Espejo (?-1585) was an adventurous Spaniard who went to New Spain in the 1570s to seek his fortune. He acquired lands and ran cattle on his ranches (estancias) in the northern frontier of Chihuahua. Espejo and his brother, Pedro Muñoz de...

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Results Found: 10