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Title: Muster Roll

Source(s): Majestic Journey: Coronado’s Inland Empire

Author(s): Stewart L. Udall (Author)

Before Coronado’s expedition into New Mexico, a muster roll was taken describing each traveler in detail.

We know a lot about events that day at Compostela— exactly 192 years before George Washington was born in 1732—because Don Antonio had issued an order that each soldier would pass before an inspector and declare his possessions. Thus, diligent sc...

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Title: Expedition into New Mexico Made by Antonio de Espejo 1582-1583 as Revealed in the Journal of Diego Pérez de Luxan, a Member of the Party

Author(s): Diego Pérez de Luxan (Author); George Hammond (Editor); Agapito Rey (Editor)

A merchant from New Spain journeys north as head of a relief party to find two Franciscan monks. Here he describes what his party found at Zuni.

We set out from this place on the fourteenth of the month and marched a league. We halted at the first pueblo of the province of Zuni which they called Malaque, in which we had a row of houses (for our use), and they gave us to eat of what they had u...

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Title: The Journey of Fray Marcos de Niza

Source(s): The Journey of Fray Marcos de Niza

Author(s): Fray Marcos de Niza (Author); Cleve Hallenbeck (Editor)

What happens when Fray Marcos de Niza sends Estevan the Spanish Moor as advance scout in search of the golden Cities of Cibola in 1539.

On another route I sent Estevan de Dorantes, the black, whom I instructed to follow to the north for fifty or sixty leagues, to see if by that route he would be able to learn of any great thing such as we sought; and I agreed with him that if he rece...

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Title: Hopi

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

An introduction to and overview of the Hopi material in Southwest Crossroads.

The villages of Hopi are the oldest continuously inhabited settlements in North America. Oraibi, the oldest village, dates back to about 1125 A.D. Present-day Hopis live in thirteen villages on and around three mesas in northern Arizona. For hundr...

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Title: Acoma

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

An introduction to the history and culture of the people of Acoma.

Tribal elders say that Acoma (sometimes spelled Akome, Acuo, Acuco, Ako and A’ku-me) means “a place that always was.” Archaeologists have found artifacts at digs on Acoma Mesa that speak of prehistoric times. Like its near neighbors Hopi and Zu...

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Title: Villagrá’s Cantos

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

A brief introduction to Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá’s cantos describing the battle between the people of Acoma and the Spanish in 1598.

Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá accompanied Juan de Oñate on the Spanish expedition into Nuevo Mexico in 1598. Luckily for history, Villagrá was a poet who recorded the details of the adventures in the rhyming verse of his day. Villagrá modeled his His...

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Title: Canto XXV

Source(s): Historia de la Nueva Mexico, 1610

Author(s): Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá (Author)

What the Franciscan missionaries thought of the conquistadores’ revenge against Acoma for the death of Juan de Zaldívar.

How a process was drawn up against the Indians of Acoma and of the opinion the monks gave, and of the instructions given the Sergeant Major that he might go forth to the punishment of the aforesaid Indians. SCARCE had the fresh dawn entered, defea...

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Title: Pérez de Villagrá’s Cantos

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

An introduction to Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá's poetic history of Spanish battles with Pueblo people in New Mexico in the 1590s.

Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá accompanied Juan de Oñate on the Spanish expedition into Nuevo Mexico in 1598. Luckily for history, Villagrá was a poet who recorded the details of the adventures in the rhyming verse of his day. Villagrá modeled his His...

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Title: Two Lives for Oñate

Author(s): Miguel Encinias (Author)

An excerpt from a novel about Juan de Oñate's campaign to conquer New Mexico in 1598-99.

On 12 January 1599, Zaldívar set out for Acoma with seventy soldiers and instructions to demand the delivery of those guilty for the attack on the Spaniards and, failing to achieve that, to wage relentless war and to take all of the inhabitants pris...

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Title: Revised Memorial of 1634

Author(s): Alonso Benavides (Author)

A description of Acoma by a prominent Spanish priest.

To the west of the Rio del Norte, at a distance of thirty leagues, lies the Peñon of Acoma, very famous for the many lives that it has cost both the Spaniards and the Indians. This was not only because it was impregnable but also because of the cour...

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