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Title: Acoma

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

An introduction to the history and culture of the people of Acoma.

Tribal elders say that Acoma (sometimes spelled Akome, Acuo, Acuco, Ako and A’ku-me) means “a place that always was.” Archaeologists have found artifacts at digs on Acoma Mesa that speak of prehistoric times. Like its near neighbors Hopi and Zu...

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Title: Villagrá’s Cantos

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

A brief introduction to Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá’s cantos describing the battle between the people of Acoma and the Spanish in 1598.

Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá accompanied Juan de Oñate on the Spanish expedition into Nuevo Mexico in 1598. Luckily for history, Villagrá was a poet who recorded the details of the adventures in the rhyming verse of his day. Villagrá modeled his His...

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Title: Canto XXIII

Source(s): Historia de la Nueva Mexico, 1610

Author(s): Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá (Author)

A description of Juan de Zaldívar's death in Acoma by a Spanish poet.

Wherein is told the death of the Army Master and what happened afterward until the news came to the Governor. LET sorrow be renewed. Let hoarse accents Of weeping come with funeral sorrow For the lamentable, cruel, brave death Of that most...

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Title: Canto XXV

Source(s): Historia de la Nueva Mexico, 1610

Author(s): Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá (Author)

What the Franciscan missionaries thought of the conquistadores’ revenge against Acoma for the death of Juan de Zaldívar.

How a process was drawn up against the Indians of Acoma and of the opinion the monks gave, and of the instructions given the Sergeant Major that he might go forth to the punishment of the aforesaid Indians. SCARCE had the fresh dawn entered, defea...

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Title: Canto XXXI

Source(s): Historia de la Nueva Mexico, 1610

Author(s): Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá (Author)

A Spanish poet describes the battle of Acoma and the destruction of the pueblo in 1598.

How the battle was carried forward until gaining victory and how fire was set to all the pueblo, and of other things that happened. . . . Just then the two pieces came up And were set at the place and spot Where an attack, by chance, was b...

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Title: Pérez de Villagrá’s Cantos

Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight

An introduction to Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá's poetic history of Spanish battles with Pueblo people in New Mexico in the 1590s.

Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá accompanied Juan de Oñate on the Spanish expedition into Nuevo Mexico in 1598. Luckily for history, Villagrá was a poet who recorded the details of the adventures in the rhyming verse of his day. Villagrá modeled his His...

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Title: Two Lives for Oñate

Author(s): Miguel Encinias (Author)

An excerpt from a novel about Juan de Oñate's campaign to conquer New Mexico in 1598-99.

On 12 January 1599, Zaldívar set out for Acoma with seventy soldiers and instructions to demand the delivery of those guilty for the attack on the Spaniards and, failing to achieve that, to wage relentless war and to take all of the inhabitants pris...

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Title: Declaration of Status

Source(s): Don Juan de Oñate, Colonizer of New Mexico, 1595-1628

Author(s): Isabel la mulata (Author); George Hammond (Editor); Agapito Rey (Editor)

Isabel, a woman of Indian and African descent, obtains proof of her freedom before traveling to New Mexico in 1600.

In the town of Querétaro in New Spain, January 8, 1600, there appeared before Don Pedro Lorenzo de Castilla, his majesty's alcalde mayor in this town, a mulatto woman named Isabel, who presented herself before his grace in the appropriate legal mann...

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Title: The Spanish Siege at Acoma

Source(s): Flaming Arrow’’s People by an Acoma Indian

Author(s): James Paytiamo (Author)

James Paytiamo describes the terrible Spanish siege at Acoma in the 1590s.

On the top of the cliff to the south is the old Spanish church which the Spanish fathers forced my people to build by carrying the adobe dirt from the valley below in their shawls, on their backs, up that steep climb. The walls of the church are seve...

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Title: Gaspar Villagrá and the Story of His Epic Adventure in the Upper Rio Grande

Source(s): Trail Dust

Author(s): Marc Simmons (Author); Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá (Author)

Historian Marc Simmons sketches the life of Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá, poet-historian of the Spanish conquest.

Captain Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá published an epic poem in 1610. Written in classical style, it was fashioned in imitation of the Aeneid by the Roman poet Virgil. The poem bore the rather colorless name, Historia de la Nueva Mexico. Villagrá is...

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