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“Itinerary of the Expedition, 1596-98”

by Unknown

June, 1598

At this time, the cart train was in trouble, both on account of dissension among those in charge, and of lack of water, and the governor had to return to them. He smoothed everything by his tact, and came back to this place on June 12 and brought some provisions. His visit gave us new life. During this time two negroes, Luis and Manuel, got lost and their straying cost them their lives.

On the 14th we traveled three leagues, stopping always in open country. We halted for the night opposite Teypana, the pueblo which we called Socorro, because it furnished us with much maizef6 Its chieftain, named Letoc, gave us a very accurate and truthful account of the pueblos of the country, as we later learned by experience. We found people only at this pueblo, and at the first and second; all the others we found deserted.

On the 15th we went four leagues, halting always on the bank of the river. We traveled three leagues to the little pueblo, which we named Nueva Sevilla because of its site. This was the first pueblo in which we camped, as we considered it safer to take refuge in the houses for protection in case the Indians of the country should decide to attack. We remained there until the 21St to wait for the supply of maize brought by Villagrá and because of the exploration of the pueblos of Abo by the maese de campo and the sargento mayor. We traveled four leagues to the pueblo of San Juan Bautista, newly built, but deserted because of our coming. Here we found a large quantity of maize, and so many painted idols that in two rooms alone I counted sixty.

We remained at this place on the feast day of Saint John the Baptist, and many Indians from different places came to visit us. Among them, and they seemed like spies, was the one whom we called Don Lope, sent by Tomas and Cristobal, Indians who had remained there since the time of Castaño.

On the 25th we proceeded six leagues in the same direction in search of Puaray, passing many pueblos, farms, and planted fields on both banks of the river, most of them abandoned on account of fear.

On the 26th we marched five leagues. We had a good rain on this day. We spent the night on the bank of the river.

On the 27th we traveled five more leagues. The governor was mired down in a maize field, although he soon got out, and we reached Puaray, the pueblo where they had killed Fray Agustin and Fray Francisco, first discoverers and fathers of New Mexico. That night the governor and the maese de campo set out from that place for Santo Domingo, six leagues distant, to find Tomas and Cristobal. Thus Saint Anthony of Padua was chosen as the patron saint of Puaray.

On the 28th they were taken by surprise and brought to Puaray. From here on the 29th Tzia was discovered and visited by the maese de campo, the sargento mayor, and Father Salazar. Thus its patrons are Saint Peter and Saint Paul.

On the 30th we went on to San Felipe, almost three leagues, then to Santo Domingo, nearly four leagues farther. This province was chosen as the site for a convent devoted to Nuestra Senora de la Asumpci6n.

August, 1598

ON August 2, feast day of Portiuncula, after celebrating the Holy Jubilee in the church of the friars of Saint Francis, who always carried it with them and who had said many masses all along the route, the governor set out for the province of the Emes.23 He spent that night at the great pueblo of Tzia, already mentioned.

On August 3 we went to the great pueblo of the Emes. On this trip the natives came out to meet us, bringing water and bread, at a most difficult hill, and they helped us to take up the cavalry armor and weapons. Two horses rolled down shortly before reaching the top. It was the feast day of the Ynbenci6n. We found the paten which belonged to the fathers, first discoverers, who had been killed eighteen years before. It was worn, suspended from the neck, by a petty chieftain of Emes who had drilled a small hole in the middle of it. He traded it for hawks bells, but even if he had not accepted them, he would not have been allowed to take it away. It is now kept in the ciborium of this convent of San Juan. It was the feast day of the Ynbención j of San Estevan when we found it.

On the 4th we went down to other Emes pueblos. They say that there are eleven altogether; we saw eight. The descent was so rough that three horses tumbled down the precipice, and two of them were killed. Most of us who were on foot also fell. With extreme caution, we traveled about four leagues.

On the 5th we went down one league to the last pueblo of this province. We saw the marvelous hot baths, the waters of which rise in many places. They are unusual marvels of nature, having cold and very hot waters, and many deposits of sulphur and alum. These are indeed well worth seeing, as will be fully told in the description of this land. The present report is only an itinerary of our journey. One league.

On the 6th, day of the Transfiguration, which we chose as the name of the convent there, we set out, after mass, and camped for the night on our way back to our headquarters. On the 7th we continued to Santo Domingo and spent the night at Asumpci6n. On the 8th we left for San Ildefonso, where we remained on the 9th; on the 10th, feast day of San Lorenzo, after mass, we went to San Juan.

On the 11th we began work on the irrigation ditch for the city of our father, Saint Francis. Just as the Spaniards worship him as their patron saint, so the Indians in their chapel worship Saint Paul on the feast day of his conversion, and thus St. Paul is considered as the patron saint of all New Mexico, as Saint Joseph is of New Spain. Thus these provinces are called the Conversión Evangelica, and they have the conversion of Saint Paul as their emblem. Some fifteen hundred barbarian Indians gathered on this day and helped us with our work.

We waited for the carts until August 18 of the said year, 1598, when they arrived. This was the eve of the feast of the blessed San Luis Obispo, on whose day, a year before, they had arrived at San Bartolomé after a long wait at Casco, harassed by the children of this world in the prosecution of this blessed expedition.

On the 20th the worthlessness of some soldiers who organized a conspiracy was made evident. The 21st was the day of merciful punishment. It was the occasion of the famous sermon of tears and of universal peace.

On the 23rd the building of the church was started, and it was completed on September 7. It was large enough to accommodate all the people of the camp.