IntroductionAfter the Spanish Conquest of the 1500s and 1600s and the Spanish and Mexican occupations in the American Southwest, the Americans arrived in 1846. This marked another encounter with outsiders for the Hopi.
The U.S. government intervened in Hopi society in many ways, significantly by removing children from their families and sending them to boarding school. This was sometimes against the will of the parents and brought on hardships, both emotional and physical.
Away at school, the children were not able to perform religious duties and work tasks. The policy produced a split between those Hopi who wanted to send their children to school and those who did not.
A Hopi elder describes those times and events in the Village of Oraibi.
View historical 3-D photographs of Oraibi and Hopi peoples. Locate Hopi on the map at the end of the slideshow.
Choose and read one of the selections.
Related materials are selections that are related to this Footpath’s topic.
InstructionTime: One to two class periods
ObjectivesTo describe the characteristics of other indigenous peoples that had an affect upon New Mexico’s development.
To explain the significance of trails and trade routes within the region.
To explore cultural interactions among indigenous and arriving populations and the resulting changes.
To compare and contrast the influence of Spain on the Western Hemisphere from colonization to the present.
To analyze and evaluate information by developing and applying criteria for selecting appropriate information and use it to answer critical questions.
To demonstrate the ability to examine history from the perspectives of the participants.
StandardsNM Public Education Department, SS, grade 7, IA; A3; A6; D1; D2
Title: Indian Lands
Author(s): Deborah Reade (Artist)
Publisher: School for Advanced Research Archives
Publication Date: 2004
Title: Oraibi Before the Split
Source(s): Hopi Voices: Recollections, Traditions, and Narratives of the Hopi Indians
Author(s): Homer Cooyama, Kikeuchmovi, July 1970 (Author); Harold Courlander (Editor)
Description: A Hopi elder tells how the conflict between the Hostiles and the Friendlies within Oraibi society destroyed their ancient religion.
Publisher: University of New Mexico Press
Publication Date: 1982
Catalog Number: pp. 129-132
Credits: Excerpt courtesy University of New Mexico Press. Harold Courlander (recorder, transcriber, and annotator).
Title: The Split at Oraibi: An Oraibi Account
Author(s): Chuka (Don C. Talayesva), Oraibi, July 1970 (Author); Harold Courlander (Editor)
Description: A Hopi elder talks about how factions developed between the Hostiles and the Friendlies at Oraibi in 1906.
Publisher: The University of New Mexico Press
Catalog Number: pp. 126-127
Title: Truth of a Hopi
Author(s): Edmund Nequatewa (Author)
Description: Edmund Nequatewa talks about the time when some Hopis refused to send their children to the boarding school at Keams Canyon.
Publisher: Museum of Northern Arizona
Publication Date: 1967 (pp. 60-62)
Title: Hano Pueblo, Hopi, Arizona, ca. 1884
Author(s): Ben Wittick (Photographer)
Description: Hano was a Hopi village occupied by Tewa descendants of people who migrated from the Rio Grande Valley.
Collection(s): Palace of the Governors
Catalog Number: DCA 16087
Credits: Ben Wittick (photographer), Courtesy Palace of the Governors (MNM/DCA), #16087
Title: Hano Pueblo, ca. 1890
Source(s): Hopi, Arizona
Description: Late 19th century photographer Ben Wittick took many photographs at Hano, a Hopi village occupied by Tewa descendants of people who migrated from the Rio Grande Valley.
Publisher: Museum of New Mexico
Catalog Number: DCA 16085
Credits: Ben Wittick (photographer), Courtesy Palace of the Governors (MNM/DCA) #16085
Title: Hopi Children, ca. 1897
Author(s): Frederick Maude (Photographer)
Description: A late 19th century photograph of Hopi children riding burros.
Catalog Number: DCA 14426
Credits: Frederick Maude (photographer), Courtesy Palace of the Governors (MNM/DCA) #14426
Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight
Description: An introduction to and overview of the Hopi material in Southwest Crossroads.
Publisher: SAR Press, School for Advanced Research
Title: Kwelele (Black Katsina)
Source(s): Kachinas of the Zuni
Author(s): Duane Dishta (Artist); Barton Wright (Author)
Description: The Black Katsina brings in the New Year to Zuni.
Publisher: Northland Press
Publication Date: 1985
Catalog Number: pp.19 [figure b]
Credits: Kachinas of the Zuni, by Barton Wright.