IntroductionFray Marcos de Niza’s Expedition of 1539 was one of several expeditions the Spaniards made into the American Southwest during the 1500s. Esteban the Moor accompanied de Niza’s expedition towards the Seven Cities of Cibola.
We learn about past events from 1) oral stories, passed down from person to person; 2) primary sources, historical documents such as journals and letters; and 3) secondary sources, such as textbooks, maps, and literature.
This lesson features a primary source document (“The Journey of Fray Marcos de Niza’s Expedition”) and two secondary source documents (“Entrada Map” and “Invasions”, a poem by Jimmy Santiago Baca).
Related materials are selections that are related to this Footpath’s topic.
InstructionTime: One to three class periods
ObjectivesTo demonstrate the ability to examine an aspect of history from the perspectives of the participants.
To include the use of primary and secondary sources in historical research.
To interpret events and issues based upon the historical, social, and geographic context of the participants.
To analyze the evolution of particular historical and contemporary perspectives.
StandardsNM Public Education Department, SS, grade 7, I-D2; grade 8, I-D1; grades 9-12, I-D3, I-D6, I-D7
Author(s): Deborah Reade (Artist)
Description: A map showing the many Spanish entradas into New Mexico during the colonial period.
Publisher: School for Advanced Research Archives
Publication Date: 2004
Title: The Journey of Fray Marcos de Niza
Source(s): The Journey of Fray Marcos de Niza
Author(s): Fray Marcos de Niza (Author); Cleve Hallenbeck (Editor)
Description: What happens when Fray Marcos de Niza sends Estevan the Spanish Moor as advance scout in search of the golden Cities of Cibola in 1539.
Publisher: Southern Methodist University Press
Publication Date: 1987 (pp. 28-36)
Credits: Courtesy Southern Methodist University Press.
Title: Fray Marcos de Niza
Author(s): J. Cisneros (Artist); Cleve Hallenbeck (Editor)
Description: Graphic artist J. Cisneros's depiction of Fray Marcos de Niza who journeyed to Cibola and brought back tales of gold to the Spaniards in Mexico.
Publication Date: 1987
Collection(s): David J. & Carol Bryant Weber
Catalog Number: p. xxxiii
Description: Graphic artist J. Cisneros's depiction of Estevan who journeyed in the American Southwest with Fray Marcos de Niza towards Cibola.
Catalog Number: p.xxxv
Title: Estévan de Dorantes
Description: Graphic artist J. Cisneros's depiction of Estévan de Dorantes who journeyed in the American Southwest with Fray Marcos de Niza towards Cibola.
Catalog Number: p. 38
Title: Home Chakwaina
Author(s): Duane Dishta (Artist)
Description: Black mask; triangular-shaped eyes; rectangular mount; flowing black beard; furry hair with feathers. Turquoise necklace; white fur strap crosses over turquoise necklace. Satchel in brown. Upper torso and upper arms painted black. Two 8-shaped designs painted in white on abdomen. Rattle in right hand; bow in left. Black, silver, turquoise bracelet on lower left arm. White kilt; animal belt attached to back. Turquoise, black and salmon-colored sash extends down right leg. On wooden stand.
Publication Date: 1950-70
Collection(s): Indian Arts Research Center, School for Advanced Research, Santa Fe
Catalog Number: School for Advanced Research Catalogue No. SAR1989-7-35
Source(s): Black Mesa Poems
Author(s): Jimmy Santiago Baca (Author)
Description: Poem about waves of conquest and settlement in New Mexico.
Publisher: New Directions Publishing Corp.
Publication Date: 1989
Credits: “Invasions” by Jimmy Santiago Baca, from Black Mesa Poems copyright @1989 by Jimmy Santiago Baca. Reprinted by permission of New Directions Publishing Corp.
Title: Portrait of Jimmy Santiago Baca
Author(s): Unidentified (Photographer)
Description: Portrait of Jimmy Santiago Baca.
Publication Date: 2005
Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight
Description: Introduction to Zuni
Publisher: SAR Press, School for Advanced Research
Title: Zuni Pueblo, ca. 1900
Author(s): Frederick Maude (Photographer)
Description: A photograph of Zuni Pueblo from the early 1900s.
Collection(s): Palace of the Governors
Catalog Number: 95320
Credits: Frederick Maude (photographer), Courtesy Palace of the Governors (MNM/DCA), #95320
Title: Map of Zuni Trade Relationships
Source(s): A Zuni Atlas; The Civilization of the American Indian Series
Author(s): Troy Lucio (Artist); T. J. Ferguson (Author)
Description: A map showing Zuni trade routes throughout the Southwest to the Pacific Ocean and Gulf of California.
Publisher: University of Oklahoma Press
Publication Date: 1985
Catalog Number: ISBN: 0806122870
Credits: A Zuni Atlas by T.J. Ferguson and E. Richard Hart, ©1985 University of Oklahoma Press.
Title: Who Is Chakwaina?
Description: Origins of the Chakwaina katsina.
Title: Kwelele (Black Katsina)
Source(s): Kachinas of the Zuni
Author(s): Duane Dishta (Artist); Barton Wright (Author)
Description: The Black Katsina brings in the New Year to Zuni.
Publisher: Northland Press
Catalog Number: pp.19 [figure b]
Credits: Kachinas of the Zuni, by Barton Wright.