IntroductionThe Hopi of the American Southwest live in one of the oldest continuously inhabited settlements in North America. The Spaniards arrived in Hopi in 1540, bringing with them a very different culture. While the Spanish explorers continued their journey, Franciscan monks stayed to missionize the Hopi. They encountered an older tradition distinctly different than their Christianity.
View historical photographs of Hopis.
Locate Hopi on the Southwest map, then read the selections.
Related materials are selections that are related to this Footpath’s topic.
Background InformationThe worldviews of the Hopis and Spaniards clashed. Two selections Part 4, Related Materials, illustrate a vast diversity in their thinking about their respective beliefs.
InstructionTime: One to two class periods
ObjectivesTo explore cultural interactions among indigenous and arriving populations and the resulting changes.
To compare and contrast the influence of Spain on the Western Hemisphere from colonization to the present.
To analyze and evaluate information by developing and applying criteria for selecting appropriate information and use it to answer critical questions.
To demonstrate the ability to examine history from the perspectives of the participants.
StandardsNM Public Education Department, SS, grade 7, A6; C1; D1; D2
Title: Hopi Hairdresser, ca. 1880-1882
Author(s): John K. Hillers (Photographer)
Collection(s): Palace of the Governors
Catalog Number: DCA 31452
Credits: John K. Hillers (photographer), Courtesy Palace of the Governors (MNM/DCA) #31452
Title: Indian Lands
Author(s): Deborah Reade (Artist)
Publisher: School for Advanced Research Archives
Publication Date: 2004
Title: The Moqui Nation
Source(s): Fray Alonso de Benavides’ Revised Memorial of 1634
Author(s): Fray Alonso de Benavides (Author); George P. Hammond (Editor); Agapito Rey (Editor)
Description: An account of how Fray Francisco de Porras arrived at Hopi and established the mission of San Bernardo.
Publisher: The University of New Mexico Press
Publication Date: 1945
Catalog Number: p. 75
Credits: Excerpt courtesy University of New Mexico Press. Frederick Webb Hodge, George P. Hammond, Agapito Rey (editors).
Title: Moki Indian Woman
Author(s): Unidentified (Artist)
Description: Moki Indian woman making pottery.
Publisher: Detroit Publishing Co
Publication Date: 1906
Collection(s): Kenneth M. Chapman Collection; at the School for Advanced Research Archive
Catalog Number: Chapman Postcards AC 02 Box 62-70 (Detroit Publishing Co File) 5511
Credits: Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Detroit Publishing Company Collection.
Title: Hopi Religion and the Missionaries
Source(s): Hopi Voices: Recollections, Traditions, and Narratives of the Hopi Indians
Author(s): Nuvayoiyava (Albert Yava), Tewa Village (Author); Harold Courlander (Editor)
Publisher: University of New Mexico Press
Publication Date: 1982
Credits: Excerpt courtesy University of New Mexico Press. Harold Courlander (recorder, transcriber, and annotator).
Title: Portrait of Albert Yava
Source(s): Big Falling Snow: A Tewa-Hopi Indian's Life and Times and the History and Traditions of His People
Author(s): Unidentified (Photographer); Harold Courlander (Editor)
Description: Portrait of a Tewa-Hopi Indian, Albert Yava.
Publisher: Smithsonian Institution
Publication Date: 1978
Catalog Number: first plate after p. 82; no page number.
Title: Kiva in Escalante Great House, Colorado
Author(s): David Grant Noble (Photographer)
Title: Boys Standing Outside Laguna Church
Author(s): Unidentified (Photographer)
Description: Boys standing outside the church at Laguna Pueblo.
Catalog Number: Box 59, AC02.852 F14-12
Title: Sixteenth-century Franciscan Monk of New Mexico
Source(s): Atzlán: The History, Resources and Attractions of New Mexico
Author(s): Unidentified (Artist); William G. Ritch (Author)
Description: Portrait of a Sixteenth-century Franciscan monk of New Mexico.
Publication Date: 1885
Catalog Number: 87294
Credits: Unidentified Artist, Courtesy Palace of the Governors (MNM/DCA) #87294
Title: Oraibi Pueblo, Hopi, Arizona, ca. 1882
Source(s): Harper's Weekly, January 28, 1882
Description: A late 19th century photograph of Oraibi Pueblo at Hopi. The view shows a man descending or ascending a ladder on a rooftop into the interior of the house.
Publication Date: [January 28, 1882]
Catalog Number: DCA 89215
Credits: John K. Hillers (photographer), Courtesy Palace of the Governors (MNM/DCA), #89215
Title: How the Spaniards Came to Shung-opovi, How They Built a Mission, and How the Hopi Destroyed the Mission
Source(s): Truth of a Hopi
Author(s): Edmund Nequatewa (Author)
Publisher: Museum of Northern Arizona Press
Publication Date: 1967
Catalog Number: pp. 42-45
Title: Spanish Missionaries
Source(s): Origins of New Mexico Families: A Genealogy of the Spanish Colonial Period
Author(s): J. Cisneros (Artist); Fray Angelico Chavez (Author)
Publisher: Museum of New Mexico Press
Publication Date: 1992
Title: Interior of Laguna Church
Description: Interior of Laguna Church.
Catalog Number: AC02.852 F14-15
Title: Mishongnovi Pueblo, Hopi, Arizona, ca. 1895
Author(s): Ben Wittick (Photographer)
Description: Hopis live in the oldest continuously inhabited settlement in North America, in thirteen pueblos situated on First, Second, and Third Mesas.
Publisher: Museum of New Mexico
Catalog Number: DCA 16091
Credits: Ben Wittick (photographer), Courtesy Palace of the Governors (MNM/DCA), #16091
Title: The Four Worlds and the Emergence
Author(s): Nuvayoiyava (Albert Yava), Tewa Village, August 1969 (Author); Harold Courlander (Editor)
Catalog Number: pp. 3-10
Title: Search for the Middle
Source(s): The Mythic World of the Zuni
Author(s): Barton Wright (Artist); Frank Hamilton Cushing (Author)
Title: Earth Mother
Title: Chakwaina Okyatsiki
Title: The Origin of Corn
Title: Martyrdom of the Blessed Father
Source(s): Fray Alonso de Benavides' Revised Memorial of 1634
Author(s): Fray Francisco de Porras, at Moqui (Author); George P. Hammond (Editor); Agapito Rey (Editor)
Description: How Fray Francisco de Porras cured a blind boy through prayer, and converted many of the Moqui Indians.
Catalog Number: pp. 76-77
Title: Fray Marcos de Niza
Source(s): The Journey of Fray Marcos de Niza
Author(s): J. Cisneros (Artist); Cleve Hallenbeck (Editor)
Description: Graphic artist J. Cisneros's depiction of Fray Marcos de Niza who journeyed to Cibola and brought back tales of gold to the Spaniards in Mexico.
Publisher: Southern Methodist University Press
Publication Date: 1987
Collection(s): David J. & Carol Bryant Weber
Catalog Number: p. xxxiii
Credits: Courtesy Southern Methodist University Press.
Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight
Description: An introduction to and overview of the Hopi material in Southwest Crossroads.
Publisher: SAR Press, School for Advanced Research
Title: Kwelele (Black Katsina)
Source(s): Kachinas of the Zuni
Author(s): Duane Dishta (Artist); Barton Wright (Author)
Description: The Black Katsina brings in the New Year to Zuni.
Publisher: Northland Press
Publication Date: 1985
Catalog Number: pp.19 [figure b]
Credits: Kachinas of the Zuni, by Barton Wright.